Confined space is defined as a space with limited access and egress. It is not designed for continues human occupancy. It can cause serious injury due to presence of flammable substances, poisonous substances, lack of oxygen, and etc.
Confined space shall be considered as Immediate Danger to Life and Health. There were several fatal accident reports related to confined space entry activities. Therefore extra care shall be taken prior to entering a confined space to prevent such accident.
Potential hazards that are mostly encountered in confined space: lack of oxygen, toxic gas, flammable gas, explosion gas. Those hazards can cause serious injury even fatality.
Supervisor shall prepare several things before conducting Confined Space Entry:
First step to do is to make sure that all personnel involve in CSE activity must undergo and pass Confined Space Entry Training. Training is important to make sure that all personnel are well informed regarding all aspects of confined space. All personnel must be made aware of the potential hazards and the risk of confined space, what the procedure is, what accident that may happen if neglecting the procedure, what to do as a precaution to prevent the accident. In other way, make sure that all personnel involved are competent to commence the activity.
Next step is to obtained Permit To Work (PTW) and Confined Space Entry Certificate (CSEC) from PTW office. These documents are to make sure that all potential hazards and risk have been identified and precautions recommendation has been made. This document also states clearly the personnel in charge for the activity. No Confined Space Entry shall be executed if there is no PTW and CSEC.
All equipments required for Confined Space Entry activity shall be made available and properly inspected prior to use. Blower or exhaust fan system must be provided for supplying fresh air. Hard barricade (if necessary) is to be installed to prevent falling person into confined space. Warning signs informing Confined Space Activity on going and the need of PTW are also important to be provided.
PTW and CSEC shall be obtained from PTW Office and made available as part of well preparation of Confined Space Entry activity. Information such as date, location, names of PIC, signatures, and etc. in PTW and CSEC must be checked and make sure all are appropriately filled up. Along with PTW and CSEC will be attached blank forms: In/Out Log Sheet, STARRT Card, and Gas Test Sheet, all of them are to be filled on the site before and during commencement of CSE.
In the beginning of the work shift, Supervisor shall conduct STARRT Meeting / toolbox meeting to inform potential hazards to the workers, risks, and control measures. All workers under his responsibility must sign the STAART Card as confirmation that they understand all information that have been delivered to them.
Authorized gas tester must test the gas inside confined space and record the result in the Gas Test Sheet. If the result is normal, confined space entry may proceed. Normal gas condition safe for work activity is Oxygen level 19.5% – 22%, LEL is 0%, and H2S level is 0 ppm. I f the result is not normal, suspend the entry, take remedy action until all are controlled then confined space entry may be resumed. Authorized gas tester shall re-test the gas inside confined space every two hours.
A person that is going inside confined space shall fill Log In/Out Sheet with his name, time entry and signature. When the person is going outside confined space he shall also fill the Log In/Out Sheet with time out and signature.
During the execution of confined space entry, watchman shall be ready in the entry gate. His main duty is to control people going inside and outside confined space and to make sure they fill the Log In/Out Sheet correctly. He must raise alarm for the entrants if there is emergency situation that may endanger entrants. He must inform emergency number if there is emergency situation inside confined space. He is also to control the blower or exhaust system.
Watchman standby outside confined space